Mac OS XIs certainly software excellence and a clear example of what the world’s best desktop operating system should look like. But she wasn’t always like this. The whole thorny path of becoming from System 1.0 to macOS 11 Big Sur in this material.
The Mac OS was first introduced in 1984, along with the release of the first Macintosh computer.
First Macintosh (1984)
Mac OS (Macintosh Operating System) was among the first operating systems to offer users a user-friendly graphical interface instead of the command line. From 1984 to 2001, versions of System 1 – Mac OS 9, which are considered to be classic, were released. Since 2000, the operating system has been named Mac OS X, and since 2016 – macOS.
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System 1.0 (1984)
In System 1.0, Apple introduced a user-friendly graphical interface. Already in the very first edition of the OS, the development team was able to make clear interaction with elements in windowed mode. In fact, more advanced versions of the operating system differ from their “ancestor” only in the quality of graphics and more advanced functionality.
System 2.0 – 6.0 (1985-1988)
During this period, developers added additional features, settings and standard applications, and a hierarchical file system also appeared. The creators of the operating system paid special attention to its adaptation to new components and devices. In particular, the developers have taken care of support for expansion slots, peripherals, new processors and more capacious drives. Note that a full-fledged multitasking panel appeared only in the System 5 version.
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System 7.0 – 7.6 (1991-1996)
The first major OS update was received only after seven years of existence. The upgrade brought a color interface, although many elements were still gray, some of them were colored. The developers have significantly improved the multitasking mode. In subsequent updates, Apple fixed bugs, added support for new components, and implemented new programs, both its own and from third-party software developers.
System 8 (1997)
This revision was released in the summer of 1997 after Steve Jobs rejoined Apple. Initially, it was assumed that the new version will continue the tradition and will be released under numbering 7.7, but Jobs made a different decision. At that time, users could install System 7 on computers from other manufacturers. Apple decided to end this practice and stopped releasing System 7. Since then, the “Apple” OS is installed exclusively on Apple devices. In the first two weeks after System 8 was released, the company sold 1.2 million copies, and sold another three million in the next six months. It is noteworthy that System 8 has undergone only a few changes. For example, the company added more colors and shades to the interface elements and provided the OS with new skins and a control panel.
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Mac OS 9 (1999)
On October 23, 1999, the Cupertinians released Mac OS 9, the latest update to the classic Mac OS. Users of this edition have the opportunity to store their information and set system settings. Among the innovations should also be noted the emergence of data encryption using Keychain technology, the ability to work with remote servers and improved support for the USB protocol. On December 5, 2001, the latest Mac OS 9.2.2 update was released.
Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah (2000)
The first public beta version of OS X became available on September 13, 2000. The cost of the distribution was $ 30. The official version appeared six months later.
On March 24, 2001, the first official version of OS X 10.0 was released. Apple decided to take a radical step away from the classical perception of Macintosh operating systems. The brand new Aqua user interface was demonstrated. Applications such as TextEdit, Viewer, Mail and QuickTime were used for the first time.
Cheetah was very demanding on the hardware: 128 MB of RAM (unofficial minimum 64 MB) and 800 MB of free disk space (preferably 1.5 GB) were at that time a luxury item. Subsequently, due to such stringent memory requirements, OS X 10.0 was criticized (the standard amount of memory in the Macintosh was 64 MB of RAM).
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Mac OS X 10.1 Puma (2001)
The second major launch of Mac OS X happened just six months later, on September 25, 2001. OS X 10.0 owners may have upgraded to OS X 10.1 absolutely free. Since then, the Cupertino mega-corporation has made Mac OS X the default operating system on all new computers.
The main focus was not on new features, but on improving system performance. There is a more convenient CD and DVD recording, support for DVD playback. The number of supported printers increased (over 200), OpenGL (3D graphics) started to work 20% faster, and AppleScript was also implemented. The programs ColorSync 4.0 (color management) and Image Capture (work with images on digital cameras and scanners) appeared.
With all its advantages Mac OS X Puma was subjected to quite serious criticism. Basically, the operating system was scolded for lack of performance, reliability, and functionality. The work done was not enough to use OS X 10.1 as the main operating system.
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Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar (2002)
Added new apps like iChat and Address Book. A big step has been taken towards people with disabilities. A splash screen appeared: instead of a happy Mac, the Apple logo in the form of a fruit was displayed.
Mac OS X 10.3 Panther (2003)
Microsoft executives were somewhat perplexed, as Apple decided to ditch Internet Explorer for Mac in favor of its own Safari browser, on the other hand – OS X 10.3 added many improvements in the area of interaction of the system with Microsoft Windows (even there was support for the Active Directory directory service).
An important innovation was the introduction of Exposé technology, in which you can move interfering windows and remove them off the screen.
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Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger (2005)
OS X adds proprietary Spotlight search and widgets (calendar, calculator, clock, and others). There is support for new hardware, including Intel processors and Apple TV.
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard (2007)
Between launches “Tiger“And”Leopard“The longest period of time has passed. And this is understandable, because Apple was busy launching the first iPhone with the original mobile operating system.
Mac OS X Leopard has become a truly multi-tasking multi-user operating system. The main innovations are support for 64-bit applications and the emergence of a utility for backing up Time Machine data. An important innovation is the ability to install third-party operating systems using the Boot Camp utility.
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Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard (2009)
The main task for the developers was to increase productivity and usability when using the new OS. The PowerPC architecture was completely abandoned (“Snow Leopard” works only on Intel processors). The system has become fully 64-bit, like most of its applications.
The cost Snow leopard for new users was $ 129 and $ 29 for Leopard users. If the computer was purchased with Leopard installed between June 8 and December 26, 2009, it was possible to upgrade to OS X 10.6 for only $ 9.95.
Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (2011)
The eighth operating system in the OS X lineup has received over 250 new features. Well, the king of beasts has sat on the throne. In the first day of sales, over 1 million copies were downloaded. The distribution was distributed through the Mac App Store for $ 29.99. By the way, Lion became the first operating system not distributed on CDs and DVDs. There are multitasking gestures, Launchpad, Resume function, Lion Recovery Disk Assistant (system restore) and much more.
For the first time, the iCloud cloud storage service was introduced.
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Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion (2012)
Apple’s management decided to release Mountain Lion a year earlier than planned, thereby reducing the development cycle from two to one year (most likely, this step was prompted by the imminent launch of rival Windows 8). The desktop version began to adopt the proprietary features of iOS: the Notification Center, Notes, Reminders appeared, iChat was replaced iMessage… There has been a tighter integration with iCloud. In total, over 200 new functions have been integrated. Mountain lion became the last operating system of the feline family.
Mac OS X 10.9 Mavericks (2013)
Beginning with OS X 10.9Apple has moved to a new naming system for its desktop operating systems. From now on, names are taken from California memorable sites. Mavericks is a popular beach. An important step for Apple to compete was the ability to upgrade to OS X 10.9 and beyond for free. Among the innovations, it is worth noting support for multiple monitors, tags, iCloud Keychain, as well as the integration of Maps and iBooks applications.
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Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite (2014)
The operating system, named after Yosemite National Park, received a radically new design with the integration of a flat interface and transparency effects as in iOS 7 / iOS 8. The revolutionary Handoff function appeared, in which, for example, starting to type text in Pages on iOS, you could instantly continue working on your Mac. Continuity lets you make and receive calls directly from your Mac.
Mac OS X 10.11 El Capitan (2015)
In this release, the developers mainly focused on improving the stability and performance of the OS. The platform did not receive any major improvements, limited to a large number of minor changes. The developers have redesigned a number of applications, including Safari, Spotlight, Mail and Notes, while simplifying the functionality of less-used programs, in particular Disk Utility.
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macOS 10.12 Sierra (2016)
With the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra, Apple has renamed Mac OS X to macOS. This version has support for the virtual assistant Siri, Apple Pay payment system. In addition, users have the opportunity to unlock Mac using their Apple Watch.
macOS 10.13 High Sierra (2017)
On September 25, 2017 macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released (review). Basically, this update is only slightly different from the previous one. One of the main innovations is the new APFS file system and the implementation of the new version of Metal 2 technology.
macOS 10.14 Mojave (2018)
The macOS Mojave operating system (review), traditionally named after a California landmark, was presented to the public on June 4, 2018 at WWDC-2018.
As part of the presentation, Craig Federighi answered the main question that interested the public – will Apple combine the mobile and desktop OS, following the example of Microsoft Windows? The answer is no, the company will continue to develop two separate systems in accordance with the specifics of iGadgets and Mac computers, but from now on, developers will be able to port applications from iOS to macOS and vice versa relatively easily and conveniently.
As an example, the new macOS Mojave introduces the Stock, News, Home and Voice Memos mobile apps. In addition, macOS Mojave has implemented the long-awaited Dark theme for comfortable work with the interface in the dark, the Mac App Store has been updated, group FaceTime calls have been implemented, and a new menu has appeared in the Finder Quick Actions etc.
macOS 10.15 Catalina (2019)
macOS Catalina (review) was announced on June 3, 2019 at WWDC 2019. Traditionally, the name was chosen in honor of a major geographical attraction located in California – the rocky island of Santa Catalina in the Pacific Ocean, located off the coast of Southern California.
Among the main innovations are:
- a complete ban on the launch and support of 32-bit applications.
- the emergence of new native applications Podcasts, Music and TV to replace the universal media player iTunes.
- the Screen Time application appeared, like in iOS.
- the Sidecar feature was introduced, allowing the iPad to be used as an additional display.
- Find My Friends and Find My iPhone have been merged into Find My.
macOS 11 Big Sur (2020)
macOS 11 Big Sur (Review) was announced on June 22, 2020 at WWDC 2020 and released to all users on November 12, 2020.
Major changes to macOS Big Sur include a redesigned user interface and support for native processors based on the ARM (M1) architecture. In addition, the system has been improved against vulnerabilities during software installation, cybersecurity, a significant redesign of the Safari browser, support for iOS and iPadOS applications.